* 관련기사에서 :
<가야금과 비보이가 만나 프랑스 달궜다>
연합뉴스 | 기사입력 2008.06.27 14:21
(파리=연합뉴스) 이명조 특파원 = "전통악기 연주와 어우러진 비보이들의 공연은 한국 문화의 힘을 느끼게 했습니다."
26일 저녁(현지시각) 프랑스 파리의 에펠탑 인근에 있는 케브랑리(Quai Branly) 박물관에서 펼쳐진 한국의 비보이그룹 '라스트포원'의 공연이 끝난 뒤 관객들은 박수갈채를 보내느라 좀체 자리를 떠날 줄 몰랐다.
열렬한 커튼콜을 받고 무대로 뛰어나온 비보이들이 다시 한번 역동적인 몸동작을 선보이고 나서야 전통 가야금 선율이 곁들여진 춤공연은 막을 내렸다.
가야금 오케스트라인 숙명가야금 연주단과 함께 선보인 비보이들의 공연은 '신체의 반영(反映) 시리즈-동(動)의 신체:무술과 아크로바틱'이란 주제로 28일까지 계속되지만 첫날부터 400석 규모의 공연장을 가득 메운 현지인들을 열광시켰다.
아쉬움을 뒤로 하고 공연장을 빠져 나오는 젊은이들은 흥분이 가시지 않은 듯 들뜬 표정으로 하나같이 "세 브레망 팡타스티크"(정말 멋지다)라고 외쳤다.
조일환 주프랑스 대사는 "우리의 전통음악에 맞춰 비보이가 프랑스에서 공연을 한 것은 이번이 처음인데도 프랑스인들이 열광적인 반응을 보여 너무 기쁘다"고 밝혔다.
조 대사는 "이번 공연은 한국의 문화를 널리 알림으로써 민간외교에 크게 기여할 것으로 기대된다"면서 "앞으로 더 많은 공연을 통해 한국의 국가이미지를 제고하는데 주력하려 한다"고 말했다.
최준호 주프랑스 한국문화원장도 "단순히 문화를 홍보하는 차원을 넘어 한국의 문화가 프랑스로 진출할 수 있는 첫 걸음을 내디딘 것으로 평가된다"면서 "반응이 워낙 좋아 비보이팀을 초청해준 케브랑리 박물관측에 답례를 한 느낌"이라고 밝혔다.
* 해설서에서 :
Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra's 2008
* History of Gayageum and the period of its modernization
The gayageum is a traditional Korean zither-like string instrument, with 12 strings, It draws its name from the ancient Korean confederacy of Gaya, where it is said to have been invented. Today, there are two types of gayageum: traditional and modernized. Traditional gayageum include the aforementioned pungnyu gayageum, which is designed in accordance with the original gaya version, and the sanjo gayageum that emerged in the late 19th century in conjunction with the instrumental solo music sanjo.
Pungnyu gayageum is used mainly for the court music that in the past was performed for the elite class, while sanjo gayageum is typically associated with folk music, such as folk songs and sanjo. Court music includes lengthy pauses between notes and generally involves a slow tempo, whereas folk music is more animated and diversified, punctuated by extreme variations in tone that require notable technical skills to execute the quick transitions. It is likely the sanjo gayageum was developed in response to the growing popularity of folk music at that time.
Since the 1960s, along with the arrival of a new musical environment, the gayageum has entered yet another era. The 1,500-year tradition of the “12-string gayageum”has been disrupted in part, as musicians from North and South Korea have increasingly departed from the performance methods and tones of the past to pursue totally new directions for the gayageum. For example, new gayageum versions can include from 15 to 25 strings.
When musicians play a traditional gayageum, which is tuned to the traditional Korean five-note scale, they depress and pluck the strings, creating melodies that reflect their individual sensibilities. However, creating a refined harmony rather than melodic tones is considered more important when playing the modern gayageum, which is tuned to a seven-note scale. Indeed, the gayageum is undergoing continuous change, with synthetic fibers now being used in place of silk strings, which have long been essential for producing the richness of tone that is unique to the gayageum, in addition to the development of even electric versions of the gayageum.
The dramatic modernization of the gayageum since the mid-20th century has led to a wave of new currents in gayageum music. gayageum performers, in an effort to present music more in tune with the contemporary tastes of Korean and foreign audiences, now use the traditional 12-string gayageum to play modern European music and the 25-string gayageum to perform popular music. In fact, it is not uncommon today to see gayageum ensembles performing contemporary music like that of the Beatles or the tango of Latin America. One can only wonder what developments might lie ahead for the world of gayageum music, which has come to encompass a wide spectrum from the traditional gayageum to its modernized versions of today.
written by Hye‐jin Song
* Brief Introduction to Korean Traditional Music
Korean Traditional Music has evolved into contemporary form from the life,
customs and philosophy of the royal court, Seonbi(Confucian scholars) society and
the common people throughout the dynasties before the 20th century. Such music is
performed on stage nowadays and transmitted under the category of "Traditional
Music". Each genre of Traditional Music of classification. Both the court music and
the music of Seonbi class are characterized with its reserved musical expression
Folk music is derived from the shaman tradition as well as Buddhism culture in
northeast Asia. In contrast to court music, folk music reflects freedom of
expression without restraint and restraint and the art of improvisation for musical
variety. Therefore, one mat easily trace the origin of music piece based in its
tempo, the scale of orchestrization, the kinds of musical instruments used for the
music, how dynamic or plain each tone expression is how well performers and
audience response to one another. The musical characteristics and cultural
background of the three categories of traditional music and be summarized as
The court ritual music has been transmitter as the symbols of the nation,
philosophy and culture. it shows great difference from the music of commoners and
Pungnyu music of Seonbi in its style and scale of performance, tempo, musical
contents. The performing troupes have an established form of orchestrization for
related court occasions and they perform the music according to a set of
procedures dressed in a designated costume. Both wind and string instruments are
well balanced with percussion instruments and the scale of orchestrization varies
upon the level of the court ritual. The splendid and grand percussion instruments,
especially Pyeongjong and Pyeongyeong are importantly considered of such
occasions due to their solemness and magnificence. Ensemble or composite art of
plying instruments, singing and dancing are ofter employed more than simple
performing style such as solo or duo.
Generally in slow tempo and performing technique of court music and be modulated with flexbility to such degree that accompanied the procedures of court rituals properly. Court music symbolizes propriety, solemness, loyalty and filial piety toward the sovereign and the seniors, national peace and prosperity, so its musical
expression through Nonghyeon(inflection) and Sinimase(Ornaments) is more
controlled than folk music played for expressing personal emotion.
Another noteworthy characteristic of court music is that its tradition of education and playing music has been preserved from a somewhat conservative perspective by the professional musicians of the royal performing arts institutions observing relative regulations. Such court music survived through the transition period from traditional society to modern society under the national protective action up until nowadays without extinction all the while.
Pungnyu music has been played and transmitted by the Seonbi as a subject of culture. The pungnyu music culture was well harmonized with the philosophy of the Seonbi who valued the well-balanced combination of study and art as the foremost virtue of a Seonbi. Consequently, pungnyu music developed into a separate music genre of korean traditional music. The orchestrization of the Seonbi`s music mostly consists of chamber ensemble and five or six musical instruments with vocla song is a typical formula of performing Pungnyu music. The general tempo of Seonbi`s Pungnyu music is slow. Though certain pieces of music have music structure in which the tempo increases from slow to fast, such changes in Jangdan and tempo does not happen so rapid that it progresses gradually. In case of slow music, a performed does nottry to fill the space between tones with sound but one rather leaves it empty or treats with Nonghyeon(inflection) naturally producing the tranquil and contemplative atmosphere. Pungnyu is the kind of music through which the mind of a person reached the state of self-discipline instead of expressing emotional joy or sorrow.
Folk music stemmed from the simple daily life of common people and has been performed and enjoyed by themselves. Folk music is not subject to a certain Kind of formality or performingconditions decided by outside factors, so the orchestrizationand performing style is much more open to the liberty of performers. Folk music represents the emotion and the life of common people more than formality and philosophy and this allows the expression of its music more straightgforward and active. Normally one or two kinds of musical instruments are played upon a certain kind of folk Jangdan and melody with songs and dances. Various ways of playing techniques like Nonghyeon(inflection) and Sigimsae(ornaments) are used to fully convey the sense of Heung (a feeling of lively animation or enthusiasm), Han(a deep feeling of resignation and regret) and Shinmyeong(a feeling of merriment). Sometimes slow tempo is paired with fast tempo in a piece of music and the tempo is modulated at othertimes according to music progression. Overall, the tempo of folk music is rather faster and more agile than the slow and solemn court music or the Seonbi`s music.
The most noticeable characteristic of folk music is foundin the various ways of music expression upon different regions. Each region of Korea has a unique local dialect. Likewise, folk music possesses different musical idioms upon different regions from Seodo (western region), Namdo(southern region), Dongbu(eastern region) and Gyeonggi(central region). When the Koreans discuss Minyo(folk songs), Pungmul(Farmers` Band music) and Shaman music, they first start woth the region the piece of music belongs to mainly due to the regional characteristics of folk music. In addition to daily-life music of common people such as Minyo and Pungmul, another kind of folk artistic music has also been derived from indigenous folk music. The professional folk music includes Pansori, Sanjo, Japga and others. These music has been generated by the professional folk music performers and preserved today as one of the most important assets of Korean traditional music.
written by Hye‐jin Song
* Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra
Formed in 1999, Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra has the distinction of being the first orchestra of its kind. The orchestra is made up of 30 ladies led by a core group of graduates from Sookmyung Women's University's graduate school of Korean traditional arts.
Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra is a rising star in Korea's culture circles, having performed at many major national and international events, including nine regular annual performances since its inception, the International Women's Competition, Busan APEC, 2007 Daejong Film Festival and "Han Style"concert organized by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism In 2006, Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra was awarded for excellence inthe gugak (traditional Korean music) group category, and at the 2007 Korean Music Festival, it was tabbed "luxury chamber music."
Some of the music performed by Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra has gained popularity among the masses. These tracks include remakes of hits by the Beatles such as "Let it be" and "Hey Jude," South American favorite "Quizs, Quizs, Quizs," and a rendition of "Pachelbel's Cannon" for a B-Boy dance routine which caused quite a stir in 2006. Furthermore, traditional nursery songs such as "Jajangga" and "Dal-a Dal-a" have also been quite popular with listeners.
In keeping with its goal, Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra continues to work hard in its search of a new repertoire that includes familiar music redone on gayageum. The hope of maintaining a spot in an increasingly digital world can be heard through the five albums, the best collection album, "For You," and the release of a second album containing original works by the orchestra in 2007.
In 2008, Sookmyung Gayageum Orchestra is preparing for an invitational performance at the Musee du Quai Branly in Paris, France and a special performance to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of the orchestra. Having been chosen a "quality program" by the Arts and literary Center, the orchestra will have a national tour with many more performances planned through out the 2008 calendar.